Digital Broadcasting: Acquisition to Multi-Format Distribution

John Anthony, Broadcast Engineer and Trainer, DigiWorkz

This 1-day workshop targets traditional analogue broadcasters, giving them an overview of Digital Broadcasting: Acquisition, Ingestion, Archive, Storage, Automation, Media Asset Management, Single & Multiple Format Distribution

Thursday, 3 November 2011 from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm

Course Outline
1. Introduction to Legacy and Current Broadcast TechnologiesAnalog TV Broadcast – Analog NTSC525/PAL625Analogue HDTV – European – D2MAC/HD MACAnalogue HDTV – Japanese MUSE- Hivision),UHD – Supervision (NHK)SDTV versus HDTVBrief DTV Worldwide Standards – DVB, ATSC, ISDB & DMB
2. Basic Analog TheoryAnalogue Basics – Raster Scanning Interlace & Progressive/Aspect RatioAnalogue Basics – Integer and Non Integer Frame RatesAnalogue Basics – Composite & Component formats – RGB / YUV / YCB CR/S-VideoAnalogue Basics – Gamma Correction
3. Introduction to DTV FormatsSDTV Format & HDTV Formats – 480/576/,720p,1080i &1080p, UHD and Cinema FormatFuture non standard HDTV formats -1440 & 2160Aspect Ratio 4:3 /16:9 / Letter Box ,Pillar box, Stretch/Zoom, Pan an Scan & AnarmophicSDTV Protection Framing – Shoot 16:9 and Protect 4:3
4. SDTV & HDTV Video System Processing and DistributionDigital Basics Sampling – Nyquist Theorem and Quantization 8/10 bit VideoDigital Composite Sampling SMPTE 244MSDTV and HDTV sampling Rate – 13.5MHz and 74.25MHzSD/HD Digital Component Sampling SDTV- ITUR BT.601 4.2.2/4.4.4 and HDTV-ITUR BT.709 22.11.11SDTV Standards – REC 601 Colorimetry/SMPTE 259M Interface- 270MbpsHDTV standards – REC 709 Colorimetry /SMPTE 292M Interface 1.485Gb/s HD & SMPTE 424M 3Gb/s HD
5. Types of HDTV Displays and MonitorsComparing between LCD, Plasma, LED TVLED edge and LED array TVHDTV formats – HD Ready/HD Ready 1080p & Full HDComparing Conventional TV Scan Rates – 25HZ/50HZ/60HZ and Commercial TV Scan Rates – 100HZ, 120HZ, 200 Hz and 600HzAppropriate HDTV viewing size and distanceHDTV display gamma issues – LCD “s” curves versus non linear CRT curvesHDTV Display Panels – 8 bit, 10 bit, 12 bit, 14 bit and 16 bit – control color banding
6. Choices of HDTV Production EquipmentHDTV VTRS- HDV/XDCAM/HDCAM/HDCAM SR/D5HD/DVCPROHD/P2 HDLCD versus Plasma in Studio and Transmission AreasScan Converters and Cross-convertersStandards ConverterMixing SDTV and HDTV equipment
7. HDTV Multichannel Audio Design and DistributionTelevision Loudness Issues – Basic AGC and CompressionBasic Audio- ADSR and Dynamic RangeDolby E encoding and DecodingDolby Digital 5.1 and Dolby True HD setups
8. Audio and Video Compression and TransmissionBasic signal compressionOverview of MPEG 2 and MPEG 4 AVC H.264MPEG multiplexing/Statistical MultiplexingIntroduction to Digital Video Broadcast (DVB )

Additional contents by Mike Richardson of Linear Acoustic Inc.


  • Measuring electrical characteristics of the signal (classic level meters) as opposed to perceptual quantities (loudness) — both are important
  • Applies to both analog and digital audio
  • Digital audio has metadata that needs to be monitored as well as essence

Audio Level Measurement

  • Direct measurement of an electrical characteristic of the signal, but with the addition of a time component– ballistics
  • Wide range of meter scales & ballistics
  • Concept of “reference” level
  • Peak vs. true peak for digital

Loudness measurement

  • Background
    • Electrical characteristics are not a good indicator of how loud audio content will sound to our ears
    • ITU has been working for years to quantify
  • Importance
    • The Loud Commercial Problem
      • Channel-to-channel problems
      • Being legislated in parts of the world
  • 1770 & related standards

How to measure 

  • Levels
  • Loudness
  • Metadata
  • Listening tests

About John Anthony, Broadcast Engineer and Trainer, DigiWorkz:

John has been working as a Broadcast Engineer and Trainer for the past 20 years in various organizations including Aljazeera International, Astro, TV3 and Abu Dhabi TV in the UAE. John has been recognized for his extensive experience and knowledge in Audio and Video technology, system maintenance and project implementation.  His interest in education and training prompted him to offer professional broadcast training with numerous technical institutions and broadcast system developers. This led him to train students and employees to better understanding complex topics of broadcast system engineering, technical production and system design. John holds a Bachelors degree in Broadcasting from the Southern Cross University, (Australia); a diploma in Audio Engineering for the School of Audio Engineering (Malaysia); and also a diploma in Computer Networking from Systematic IT Institute (Malaysia).

About DigiWorkz Asia-Pacific Broadcast Training Centre:

DigiWorkz, the Asia-Pacific Broadcast Training Centre, was established in 2002 by Asia-Pacific Broadcasting (APB), a monthly trade publication that has been the voice of the broadcast and multimedia industry for more than 27 years.  Based in Singapore’s Ngee Ann Polytechnic, DigiWorkz provides broadcasters from around the region with short, practical broadcast engineering and production courses. It also develops customised training as well as in-house courses for broadcasters in the region.

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